LIGO Document G1701534-v1

Monitoring Void Fraction and Bubble Formation in Flowing Liquid Nitrogen

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Optical monitoring of bubble formation to determine density fluctuations in liquid nitrogen flowing through a pipe. Density changes in the liquid nitrogen used in the cryogenics system result in changing gravitational forces, better known as Newtonian Noise. This technique will be useful to determine the required conditions for the flow to have Newtonian Noise compliant with the desired sensitivity levels of LIGO Voyager.
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